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Water Studies

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Book Examples (APA)

Basic Format for Books (APA)
Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of work: Capitalize first letter of subtitle. Location: Publisher.


One Author
Wellock, D. (2015). Health and nutrition for dogs and cats: A guide for pet parents. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Two Authors 
Terhune, T.R., & Hays, B. A. (2015). Land your dream career in college: The complete guide to success. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
More Than Two Authors
Liebman, J. S., Crowley, S., Markquart, A., Rosenberg, L., White, L. G., & Zharkovsky, D. (2014). The wrong carlos: Anatomy of a wrongful execution. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Corporate Author
Solar Energy International. (2014). Photovoltaics design and installation manual: Renewable energy education for a sustainable future. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Press.
Zott, L. M. (Ed.). (2015). Women's health: Opposing viewpoints. Greenhaven Press.


Work in Anthology or Collection (or Single Chapter in Edited Volume)
Buchanan, A. (2014). Protective factors in family relationships. In M. M. Merviö (Ed.), Contemporary social issues in East Asian societies: Examining the spectrum of public and private spheres (pp. 76-85). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.


Introduction, Preface, Foreword or Afterword
Mast, T. (2007). Introduction. In R. A. Kelly, Energy supply and renewable resources (pp. i-ix). New York, NY: Facts on File.


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Periodical Examples (APA)

Basic Format for Periodicals (APA)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Publication Date). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Title of Periodicalvolume number(issue number), pages.


Magazine Article (APA)
Fisher, D. (2008, November 24). A brief history of energy boondoggles. Forbes, 82.


Scholarly Journal Article (w/ DOI)
O'Connor, D., & Hou, D. (2019). More haste, less speed in replenishing China's groundwater. Nature, 569(7757), 487.
Scholarly Journal Article
Schimmoller, B. K. (2004). Renewable energy enters commercial era. Power Engineering, 108(4), 28-41.


Haggas, C. (2009, February 15). [Review of the book Clean Energy Nation: Freeing America from the Tyranny of Fossil Fuels by J. McNerney & M. Creek].  Booklist, 22.


Newspaper Article
Wald, M. L. (2009, July 13). Debate on clean energy leads to regional divide. New York Times, pp. 13A.


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Website Examples

Basic Format

Author, A. A. & Author B. B. (Date of publication). Title of page [Format description when necessary]. Retrieved from

If no author is listed, begin with the page Title, followed by date and the rest of the citation:

Title of page [Format description when necessary]. (Date of publication). Retrieved from

If no publication date is listed, use the abbreviation (n.d.) in place of the date:

Author, A. A. & Author B. B. (n.d.). Title of page [Format description when necessary]. Retrieved from

If you expect the page's content to change with some frequency, add date accessed:

Author, A. A. & Author B. B. (Date of publication). Title of page [Format description when necessary]. Retrieved Month DD, YYYY from


Website Examples
About. (n.d.). Retrieved July 18, 2019 from
Pulses: Nutritious Seeds for a Sustainable Future [PDF file]. (2016). Retrieved from


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In-Text Citations

In-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the reference list at the end of the paper.

Basic format: use the last name of the author followed by a comma and the publication year enclosed in parentheses: (Smith, 2007).

When doing a direct quote: include the page number should be included, or a pointer to the paragraph or section. If you are paraphrasing the page number is not required.

Signal Phrase: If you refer to the author's name in a sentence you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation, instead include the date after the name and the page number (if there is one) at the end of the quotation or paraphrased section. For example:

Hunt (2011) explains that mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" (p. 358).

A Work by Two Authors

Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses. Examples:

In their research on therapy options, Key and Peel (2015) demonstrated...

(Key & Peele, 2015)

A Work by Three to Five Authors

List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses. Example:

(Pavia, Lampmann, Liu, Barnes, & Harley, 2011)

In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

(Pavia et al., 1993)

Six or More Authors

Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses. Examples:

Phillips et al. (2011) argued...
(Phillips et al., 2011)

Unknown Author

If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. APA style calls for capitalizing important words in titles when they are written in the text (but not when they are written in reference lists). Example:

A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using Citations," 2001).

Organization as an Author

If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.

According to the American Psychological Association (2000),...

If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.

First citation: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2017)
Second citation: (CDC, 2017)

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Help on Annotated Bibliographies