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Research help on economics, including macroeconomics and microeconomics papers

Examples -- Referencing Books

Basic Format for Books
Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of work: Capitalize first letter of subtitle and Proper Nouns. Publisher. DOI (if it has one)


One Author
Wellock, D. (2015). Health and nutrition for dogs and cats: A guide for pet parents. Rowman & Littlefield.
Two Authors 
Terhune, T. R., & Hays, B. A. (2015). Land your dream career in college: The complete guide to success. Rowman & Littlefield.
More Than Two Authors
Liebman, J. S., Crowley, S., Markquart, A., Rosenberg, L., White, L. G., & Zharkovsky, D. (2014). The wrong Carlos: Anatomy of a wrongful execution. Columbia University Press.
Corporate Author
Solar Energy International. (2014). Photovoltaics design and installation manual: Renewable energy education for a sustainable future. New Society Press.
No Author 
Lippincott nursing procedures (8th ed.). (2019). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Zott, L. M. (Ed.). (2015). Women's health: Opposing viewpoints. Greenhaven Press.
A Later Edition of a Book
Carpenito, L. J. (2017). Nursing care plans: Transitional patient & family centered care (7th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Work in Anthology or Collection (or Single Chapter in Edited Volume)
For an authored chapter in an edited book:
Buchanan, A. (2014). Protective factors in family relationships. In M. M. Merviö (Ed.), Contemporary social issues in East Asian societies: Examining the spectrum of public and private spheres (pp. 76-85). Information Science Reference.


Introduction, Preface, Foreword or Afterword
Mast, T. (2007). Introduction. In R. A. Kelly, Energy supply and renewable resources (pp. i-ix). Facts on File.
  • Chapter in a Book:  if the book isn't edited, don't create a reference to a chapter in a book.  Reference the entire book and put the chapter in the citation.  Here's an example citation: (McAlvoy & Willis, 2014, Chapter 16, p. 263)
  • When a book is from a library database
    • If the book has a DOI: include the DOI ( after the publisher. No period after a DOI
    • If the book doesn't have a DOI: end the reference after the publisher
  • What is the book has an imprint as well as a publisher: use the imprint instead of the publisher (p. 295-6)

Examples -- Referencing Articles

Basic Format for Periodicals (APA)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Publication Date). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Title of Periodicalvolume number(issue number), pages.


Magazine Article (In Print or From an NMC Article Database)
Fisher, D. (2008, November 24). A brief history of energy boondoggles. Forbes, 82.
Magazine Article from the Web


Schulman, M. (2019, September 9). Superfans: A love story. The New Yorker.


Scholarly Journal Article (w/ DOI)
O'Connor, D., & Hou, D. (2019). More haste, less speed in replenishing China's groundwater. Nature, 569(7757)487.
Scholarly Journal Article - Print or From Library Database
Schimmoller, B. K. (2004). Renewable energy enters commercial era. Power Engineering, 108(4), 28-41.


Haggas, C. (2009, February 15). [Review of the book Clean Energy Nation: Freeing America from the Tyranny of Fossil Fuels by J. McNerney & M. Creek].  Booklist, 22.


Newspaper Article
Wald, M. L. (2009, July 13). Debate on clean energy leads to regional divide. New York Times, pp. 13A.


Referencing an Article from an Article Database: Don't include database information unless the database is the only way to access the article. Most articles from NMC databases will be referenced without the database information.

If the journal article without a DOI but a usable URL for any reader (e.g., it is from an online journal that is not part of a database), include the URL of the article at the end of the reference.

Website Examples

Basic Format

Author, A. A. & Author B. B. (Date of publication). Title of page [Format description when necessary].

If no author is listed, begin with the page Title, followed by date and the rest of the citation:

Title of page [Format description when necessary]. (Date of publication).

If no publication date is listed, use the abbreviation (n.d.) in place of the date:

Author, A. A. & Author B. B. (n.d.). Title of page [Format description when necessary]. Retrieved from

If you expect the page's content to change with some frequency, add date accessed:

Author, A. A. & Author B. B. (Date of publication). Title of page [Format description when necessary]. Retrieved Month DD, YYYY from


Website Examples
National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, July). Anxiety disorders. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.
Pulses: Nutritious Seeds for a Sustainable Future [PDF file]. (2016).
U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved January 9, 2020, from


Referencing a Source Your Reader Can Access (Student Paper)
Arnett, P. (2020). Course outcomes [Lecture notes]. NMC Moodle.


  • Updated versus Reviewed Date for Online Works (9.15 in Manual)
    • If the page has a "last updated" date, you may use it if you're sure the material you're citing was updated them
    • If the page has a "last reviewed" date, don't use it in your reference; the content probably wasn't updated
  • When to include retrieval date: when content will be changed (e.g. site displaying current world population)
  • "If you cite multiple webpages from a website, create a reference for each." (10.16 in manual)

In-Text Citations

In-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the reference list at the end of the paper.

Basic format: use the last name of the author followed by a comma and the publication year enclosed in parentheses: (Smith, 2007).

When doing a direct quote: include the page number should be included, or a pointer to the paragraph or section. If you are paraphrasing the page number is not required.

Signal Phrase: If you refer to the author's name in a sentence you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation, instead include the date after the name and the page number (if there is one) at the end of the quotation or paraphrased section. For example:

Hunt (2011) explains that mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" (p. 358).

A Work by Two Authors

Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses. Examples:

In their research on therapy options, Key and Peel (2015) demonstrated...

(Key & Peele, 2015)

A Work by Three tor More Authors

(Pavia et al., 1993)

Unknown Author

If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. APA style calls for capitalizing important words in titles when they are written in the text (but not when they are written in reference lists). Example:

A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using Citations," 2001).

Organization as an Author

If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.

According to the American Psychological Association (2000),...

If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.

First citation: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2017)
Second citation: (CDC, 2017)