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Business: Citations

Business, Industry and Company research

Citation Examples in APA (American Psychological Association) Style

There are two types of citing in APA: in-text citations and reference citations.  In-text citations refer to when a writer uses information from a source (book, article, website) either as a quote or a paraphrase in their paper.  Reference citations refer to the cites which appear in your paper's Works Cited list, the full citation of the material cited.

Here are the basic elements of a citation:

  • Book:  Author, Date Published, Title, Place of Publication, Name of Publisher.
  • Journal: Author, Date of Publication, Title of Article, Title of Journal, DOI Number (replaces web address and database name).

Example of a Direct Quotation (in-text citation) 

While group work offers many advantages in nursing care, there are drawbacks for some participants, "Further impediments to client participation may be a perceived lack of privacy in large groups, and limited time for personal discussion" (Newcombe & Gledstone, 2003, p. 31).

Example of a Paraphrase (in-text citation)

While group work offers many advantages in nursing care, there are drawbacks for some participants. Large groups can be viewed as lacking privacy and they also offer fewer opportunities for personal discussion (Newcombe & Gledstone, 2003).

Reference Citation Example (using article cited above)

Newcombe, T. & Gledstone, P. (2003). Implementing groupwork in primary care to meet  

     client need. Nursing Times, 99(27), 30-33.

Reference Citation Example (electronic resource)

American College Health Association. (2005).  Meningitis on campus. Retrieved

     January 16, 2009 from


All of the details are important with APA.  Note how only the author's last name and first initial is used as well as how titles are in italics. For more examples, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (see box to left).

MLA Tips

1-Make sure to follow the most recent edition of MLA. The 7th edition was published in the summer of 2009.

2-Book and journal titles are now put in italics instead of being underlined, indicating the move from typewriters to computers.

3-MLA no long requires including the web address in citations for web documents. The word "Web" toward the end of the citation now suffices.  If you believe the website cannot be located without the web address, then it can be included, but this would be the exception rather than the rule.

4-Papers formatted in MLA Style do not include a separate title page.  This information is included at the top of the first page of the paper.

MLA Style, 7th Edition

Each academic discipline adheres to a style of documentation used to format papers, cites sources, and create reference lists.  There are several:  APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian.  They can seem like a foreign language, but with study and help you can learn to master the format used in your discipline. 

At NMC, MLA (Modern Language Association) is the style used by the Communications Department. A new edition, the 7th, of MLA was published in Spring 2009. You'll find a copy of the MLA Handbook at Osterlin in the Stacks and in the Reference Collection, PN147 .M5 2009.


NoodleBib is a subscription citation software provided to NMC users.  A citation generator, NoodleBib formats citations in the correct bibliographic format (APA, MLA, Chicago).  NoodleBib takes the guess work out of developing your Works Cited list.  It does require you to input the correct information and through a series of questions, helps ensure you enter all the data needed to create your citations. 

Getting started with NoodleBib requires setting up an account.  This account is separate from your NMC User Name and ID, though you can use those if you wish.  Once you have an account, the software allows you to create multiple lists (ones for separate classes and assignments).  Additionally, the lists you create in NoodleBib are permanent and remain in the software as long as you remain at NMC.

Need Help?

Contact an Osterlin Librarian (Note: Librarians can reset your NoodleBib account)

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